Distinguish, differentiate, compare and explain what is the Difference between Biosphere reserve and National park. Comparison and Differences.
How Biosphere Reserves are different from protected areas such as National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries?
It may be noted that the Biosphere Reserve is not intended to replace existing protected areas but it widens the scope of the conventional approach of protection and further strengthens the Protected Area Network. Existing legally protected areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuary, Tiger Reserve and reserve/protected forests) may become part of the Biosphere Reserve without any change in their legal status. On the other hand, the inclusion of such areas in a BR will enhance their national value. It, however, does not mean that Biosphere Reserves are to be established only around the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. However, the Biosphere Reserves differ from protected areas due to their emphasis on :
- Conservation of overall biodiversity and landscape, rather than some specific flagship species, to allow natural and evolutionary processes to continue without any hindrance.
- Different components of BRs like landscapes, habitats, and species and landraces.
- Developmental activities, and resolution/mitigation of conflicts between development and conservation.
- Increase in broad-basing of stakeholders, especially local people’s participation and their Training, compared to the features of a scheme on Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks.
- Sustainable environment-friendly development, and sustained coordination amongst different development organizations and agencies.
- Research and Monitoring to understand the structure and functioning of the ecological system and their mode of reaction when exposed to human intervention.
Difference between Biosphere reserve and National park
1. A biosphere reserve is ecosystem-oriented, i.e. supports all forms of life in the reserve system. The national park is habitat for particular wild animal species.
2. Size of Biosphere reserve ranges up to 5670 sq km. In India, the most common average size of National park is 100 – 500 sq km (in about 40% of cases) and 500 -1000 sq km (in about 15% of cases). The average size ranges from .04 to 3162 sq km.
3. Both in the National park and Bio-reserve park boudoirs are fixed by legislation.
4. Except for the buffer zone, both the parks have no biotic interference.
5. Tourism is not permissible in Biosphere reserve parks whereas Tourism is permissible in National parks.
6. Biosphere park is well scientifically managed and attention provided whereas in National park scientific management is lacking. and no attention is provided.