Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. Lets see some of the common ebola virus facts everybody should know and be aware of.
Ebola Virus Facts
Ebola virus is not spread through
- Casual contact
- Food grown or legally purchased in the U.S.
How do you get the Ebola virus?
- Body fluids of a person who is sick with or has died from Ebola. (blood, vomit, urine, feces, sweat, semen, spit, other fluids)
- Objects contaminated with the virus (needles, medical equipment)
- Infected animals (by contact with blood or fluids or infected meat)
Early Symptoms and Ebola Virus Facts
Ebola can only be spread to others after symptoms begin. Symptoms can appear from 2 to 21 days after exposure.
- Stomach pain
- Unexplained bleeding or bruising
- Muscle pain
When is someone able to spread the disease to others?
Ebola only spreads when people are sick. A patient must have symptoms to spread the disease to others.
|After 21 days, if an exposed person does not develop symptoms, they will not become sick with Ebola.|
Ebola Virus Facts on its Diagnosis
It can be difficult to distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Confirmation that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection are made using the following investigations:
- antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
- antigen-capture detection tests
- serum neutralization test
- reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
- electron microscopy
- virus isolation by cell culture.
Samples from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; laboratory testing on non-inactivated samples should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions.
Ebola Virus Facts on its Prevention and Control
- Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat.
- Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids.
- Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission, because the risk of sexual transmission cannot be ruled out, men and women who have recovered from Ebola should abstain from all types of sex (including anal- and oral sex) for at least three months after onset of symptoms.
- Outbreak containment measures, including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola and monitoring their health for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, and the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.
Ebola Virus Facts on its Treated?
The Ebola virus does not have a cure or vaccine at this time. Instead, measures are taken to keep the person as comfortable as possible. Supportive care measures may include:
- giving medications to maintain blood pressure
- managing electrolyte balances
- providing extra oxygen, if needed
- providing intravenous and/or oral fluids to prevent dehydration
- treating coexisting infections
- preventing other infections from occurring
- administering blood products if indicated